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Re: 1655 Gas
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I can think of a few possibilities;
The cam timing may be wrong which would effect the both intake and exhaust sides letting the exhaust valve open too soon thereby letting still burning gasses out into the exhaust, or some (or most) of the exhaust valves may be too loose and not closing completely. But the tractor would run -less than perfectly- throughout the RPM range I believe.
Two is simpler - the timing is retarded too much, also allowing the still burning gasses out into the exhaust. If the timing sparks the plug too late the engine will labor some and the gasses will not be finished combusting when the exhaust valves open. Burning gas inside a muffler? It's gonna get hot in there.
The third was mentioned already by alberta dave, running much too rich.
J.Wondergem's suggestion works just the opposite, the gas combusts too quickly along with not enough intake cooling from the fresh mixture coming into the cylinder. That overheats the engine itself, not the exhaust system. A lean condition almost always shows itself inside the intake tract I believe. It has on my engines anyway (not tractor engines). My Harley is a case in point, it's old, been modified for the drag strip, and the carb is flightly. Rejetting and timing are critical. Lean spits back out the carb, rich barks out the exhaust, lean overheats the engine, rich doesn't overheat the engine but the engines not making peak power. Valve/cam timing is usually evident as soon as the engine is started. Loose valve(s) should be heard easily enough. Use a stethoscope or long (plastic handled) screwdriver to listen to the inside of the engine near each valve group...can't hurt. Even slight ticks can be heard.
Any of these conditions will wear on the exhaust valves pretty quick and so should be fixed asap. If your muffler is glowing think of how the exhaust valves must be looking.
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