A) "For your item D): by motor starter I'm referring to the large, square box on the side of the motor. I assumed it was for high torque starting. Is there a better or more correct name for it?"
1) THATS NOT JUST A BOX WHERE CAPACITORS ARE LOCATED IS IT??????????? I ask cuz you mentioned High Torque Starting. Take a Look See??
2) Its NOT just a wiring junction box is it????
NOTE !!!!!!!!!!!!!! I'm more used to seeing capacitors or junction boxes on the side of a motor then a Starter. If I were to place a bet Id doubt its a starter BUT HEY I HAVE BEEN WRONG BEFORE LOL Are there any push buttons or red re sets or switches of any kind on it???
3) I cant say from here just whats in that square box, perhaps some of the fine more hands on more recent in the practice (I been retired since 1991) electricians can and/or even post some pictures for you???
That being said, A Starter consists of a set of Contactors (like a relay) PLUS Thermal Overloads or what are called Heaters. How it works is the heaters sense current and if its excessive the relay/contactor opens up.
Look n see whats in that box??? Is it simply a wiring junction box orrrrrrrrr see if theres what looks like a relay and set of contacts inside there orrrrrrrr Capacitors??????
B) "What do I need to check to make there is proper thermal overload protection?"
See the above LOOK INSIDE THERE. (Capacitors, Relays, Simply wiring???) Note some smaller motors have an internal thermal overload protection device and you see like a red re set push button somewhere on the case GOT ANYTHING LIKE THAT
C) "Item E): Do I need 30 amp time delay fuses at both the main box where the branch comes out of, and at the safety switch? Or just time delay out by the switch?"
Is the "main box" a circuit breaker panelboard or a fuse panel??? You may NOT even need them it depends on the motors starting characteristic and starting torque and start up load. Looks like an elevator would be started empty before grain is added (increasing load) so a regular fuse would work HOWEVER if a regular fuse blows due to excess initial start up current (I doubt if elevator is started empty), then BOTH locations would require them. Often the main panel is a circuit breaker while the fused safety switch is where time delays may or may not be needed. Also, the code allows the use of a larger breaker then normal to allow a motor to start so it doesn't trip provided the motor is overload protected
That's all I have to say about that