" The resistor block and terminal block are one in the same?"
While the terms are commonly used to mean the same part, your tractor has a resistor block......that's a terminal block to which a resistor is attached. A terminal block, used on mid-50's to 52 8N's, did not have a resistor.
" Doe sthat supply a voltage to all those wires?"
Google "wiring diagram JMOR" to get a visual of what it's supposed to look like wired.
The center post is the "common"; all but 2 wires attach there.
The top two posts are for the resistor. Attach the wire to the coil on the left & the wire to the ignition switch on the right. That puts the resistor between the switch & the coil.
As to your problem......
Make a visual inspection first, compared to the JMOR diagram. You will probably find something burnt at the short.