Only if you have a TEA-20 will it have a timing chain (if you are asking about a Ferguson).
Depending on how far it jumped, only 1 or 2 teeth, it may still start, probably be difficult to start, but will have a loss of power. It will eventually jump more.
If jumped more than a couple teeth, the starter will sound different, spin through faster because of low compression, will not start.
You can check the position of the distributor rotor. If the ignition timing is retarded (set the engine to TDC, the rotor should point to #1 or #4. If it's not there yet, it is retarded).
You can also rock the crank back and forth while feeling the cam resistance and watching the distributor. That will give some idea how much slack is in the chain.
If this is not a TEA, it will have gears. Very rare for gears to actually strip on these tractors. But when it happens, they won't jump a tooth, but will strip to the point the cam will stop turning. Usually a gear failure is a result of the governor coming apart and pieces of the ball cage running through the gears.