I have several 1000 case crawlers. The 1150 uses the same transmission , but the charge pumps are different. It sounds like you are loosing the pilot bearing or bushing inside the torque converter that carries the output shaft,this permits the two halves of the torque converter to rub together . Check to see if your metal particles are steel or aluminum.If aluminum , it will be the torque converter. If steel ,it would have to be something serious in the trans which rarely happens.
The fact that it runs and quits , says that the suction filter for the trans is full of metal,and when you shut it down the metal falls down out of the filter , when you run it picks it up again.
Had that happen on my dozer many years ago, when it lost the bushing in the converter. In the old ones the bushing is NSS , so I made one , been running for 35 years since.